Amazon运营之PPC十万个为什么(1)手动广告三种匹配方式怎么选择?

开篇声明:本专栏一切文章和内容,仅代表个人观点,欢迎讨论。本人仅仅是一名amazon运营,不是机构,不会圈粉,不会割韭菜。本着同则相亲,异则相敬的原则,分享一些自己的想法。不喜勿喷,不喜勿撕。

关于Amazon站内广告,打算会有一系列的内容和大家分享讨论。此为广告系列的开篇:(1)手动广告三种匹配方式怎么选择?
在回答这个问题前,先了解一下广告评级。手动广告主要展示在搜索结果页(SRP: Search Result Page), 而广告的展示顺序即搜索关键词时广告排名,为什么这个排第一,那个排第二,Amazon官方并没有给明确的说明。虽然Amazon并没有说明广告排名原理,相信很多人会拿google广告的排名来推理。以下内容来自google官方说明:
Google Ads calculates Ad Rank for every ad in the auction. Ad Rank determines your ad position and whether your ads are eligible to show at all. Generally speaking, the ad with the highest Ad Rank gets to show in the top position and the ad with the second-highest Ad Rank gets to show in the second position (assuming the ads clear the relevant thresholds), and so on.
Example
Assume five advertisers are competing for a maximum of four ad positions above search results on the Google search results page. The respective Ad Rank of each of the advertisers is, say, 80, 50, 30, 10, and 5.
If the minimum Ad Rank necessary to show above the search results is, say, 40, only the first two advertisers (with Ad Ranks of 80 and 50) exceed the minimum and show above the search results.
If the minimum Ad Rank necessary to show below the search results is 8, then two of the three remaining advertisers (with Ad Ranks of 30 and 10) will show beneath the search results. The advertiser with an Ad Rank of 5 didn’t meet the minimum Ad Rank and so won’t show at all.
For the purposes of the Average Position metric, the advertiser with an Ad Rank of 80 (in the first position above search results) will get position 1, the advertiser with Ad Rank of 50 (in the second position above search results) will get position 2, the advertiser with an Ad Rank of 30 (in the first position below search results) will get position 3, and the advertiser with an Ad Rank of 10 (in the second position below search results) will get position 4. “Position” therefore refers to an advertiser’s order in the auction, not a specific location on the search results page. So even though two of the four available ad positions above search results (the positions immediately below the advertisers with Ad Ranks of 80 and 50) were left empty, the next two advertisers in the ranking (the advertisers with Ad Ranks of 30 and 10) receive positions 3 and 4 for purposes of Average Position.
To improve your ad position, you can:
Increase your bid
Improve the quality of your ads and landing page experience
广告排名是由你的广告评级决定的。广告评级高,广告排名好。因此要提高排名就要提高评级,通过增加bid和改善你广告的质量。
Amazon广告应该也同理。就是说,每个广告都有一个评级。这个评级用数字体验,就是广告分数。而这个广告分数,主要由你的bid和你广告相关性(google是广告质量,amazon我更喜欢叫相关性)决定。得出一个公式: 广告得分=出价(bid)*相关性。
知道这个公式以后,我们进入今天的主题。手动广告的broad,phrase,exact三种匹配方式怎么选?
先看一个知友相关问题:如果广告broad exact phrase同时投放相同的关键词kids cars ,当买家搜索kids cars 这个关键词时 优先展示哪种匹配类型的? 问题地址:http://wearesellers.com/question/6456
知友贴出了亚马逊的回复  Same bid, the exact match type will be preferential when customer searches with the keyword “kids cars”different bid, the highest bid price for the keyword match type would be recording the impression.
关于这个问题我们可以用上面广告排名的公式来回答。
广告得分=出价(bid)*相关性。 关键词kids cars 出价(bid)是一样的,广告的相关性呢?广告相关性只跟你的广告本身或者说listing本身有关。同一个listing的广告,相关性明显也是一样的。 broad,phrase,exact只是匹配方式,岂能提高你的广告相关性? 所以答案显而易见的,一个广告的一个关键词,同样的bid,不同的匹配方式下,广告得分都一样,就没有优先展示哪一个的说法。这种极端的问题,根本就没有实际意义。
这是我今天想说的一个结论: broad,phrase,exact只是匹配方式,不要想多了。
 
关于三种匹配方式怎么选择,Amazon官方说的很明白了。见Amazon官方帮助页面:https://sellercentral.amazon.com/gp/help/G201817600
Keyword match types allow you to fine-tune which search terms your ads are eligible to show against. You can choose from broad, phrase and exact match types.
Broad match keywords will give you the most traffic exposure, while phrase and exact match will restrict your traffic to a narrower and more precise target audience.
When choosing a match type, it’s recommended that you start with broad match to capture the most information on where your ads perform the best. Then review either the keyword metrics in Campaign Manager within the Keywords tab, or the Campaign Performance Report for Sponsored Products to evaluate the performance of your keywords and match types. Once you’ve observed which keywords and search terms are performing best, you can change your bids or create a more concise group of keywords to optimise your campaigns and reach your goals.
(通过关键字匹配类型,您可以精细设置您的广告要在哪些搜索词的结果中显示。您可以选择的匹配类型有三种:广泛匹配、词组匹配和精确匹配。
广泛匹配关键字可为您带来最大的曝光量,而词组匹配和精确匹配会缩小曝光范围,但可以更加准确地定位目标消费群体。
选择匹配类型时,建议您首先选择广泛匹配,以便尽可能全面地了解您的广告在哪些方面效果最佳。然后查看广告活动管理中关键字选项卡中的关键字指标,或查看亚马逊商品推广的广告活动绩效报告,以评估您的关键字和匹配类型的效果。了解到哪些关键字和搜索词的效果最佳后,您可以更改竞价,或创建一组更精炼的关键字,以优化广告活动并实现您的目标。)
这个帮助页面中有处要注意,容易引起误解:
Phrase match
The search term must contain the exact phrase or sequence of words. It is more restrictive than broad match and will generally result in more relevant placements for your ad.
Exact match
The search term must exactly match the keyword in order for the ad to show, and will also match close variations of the exact term. Exact match is the most restrictive match type, but can be more relevant to a search.
(短语匹配
买家的搜索查询必须包含准确的短语或词序。与广泛匹配相比,该类型的限制性更强,通常会将您的广告显示在相关度更高的位置。 
精确匹配
买家的搜索查询必须与关键词的词序完全匹配,广告才会显示。另外还将匹配与确切的关键词近似的变体。精确匹配是限制性最强的匹配类型,但其匹配结果与买家搜索的相关度更高。
generally result in more relevant placements for your ad. (通常会将您的广告显示在相关度更高的位置。)这里并不是说 一个广告的一个关键词,同样的bid,phrase 匹配 比broad排名更高,而是说,一般情况下,词组匹配的词,通常要选择跟你的广告更相关的。
上面都是官方的一些说法,下面说一下我对手动广告中三种匹配方式的实际想法和操作。
有的人,先broad,再挑选一些词设置成phase,最后再挑选设置成exact。 也有人的做法是,用工具,通过核心关键词,挖掘出很多长尾词,然后直接就Phrase和Exact开始做。
我更倾向于前者或者说两者结合。在listing上架前,做好关键词研究,核心,长尾整理好,然后就broad跑核心,精准跑长尾。当然整个广告过程,就是不断的增删词的过程。
为什么前期一定要跑broad?虽然一个产品的核心词就几个,通过关键词挖掘工具能挖掘出来很多长尾词或者说精准词。但是,即便工具再强大,也搜集不完人类千奇百怪的搜索。而broad就是为这些千奇百怪的搜索词而准备的。当然,broad肯定会跑出很多跟产品不太相关的词,浪费一些预算。

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